Hepatitis A is transmitted through ingestion of contaminated food and water, and it is endemic in many parts of the world. Vaccination consists of two doses and the first should be given a minimum of 2 weeks in advance of departure.
Hepatitis B vaccination consists of 3 doses and is transmitted through contact with blood and bodily fluids.
Meningococcal vaccination is recommended for all unvaccinated college-age students and for those who received their first dose of meningococcal vaccine prior to 16 years of age who will be living in residential housing while at college. It is also recommended for previously unvaccinated children 11-18 years old.
Tetanus +/- Pertussis
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Typhoid fever is spread through ingestion of contaminated food or water. There are two different typhoid vaccinations available in the US – an oral and an injectable formulation. Your travel medicine pharmacist will help determine which vaccine is most appropriate for you.
Yellow fever is a viral disease spread by mosquitoes in sub-Saharan Africa and parts of South and Central America. While most countries do not require yellow fever vaccination for entry, it is required if traveling from a country where yellow fever is present to another country (for example, if traveling from Zambia to South Africa, or from Peru to Bolivia). For a list of yellow fever endemic countries please click here.
This vaccination is part of a 2 dose series and provides adequate immunity for about 1-2 years.
Travelers to equatorial Africa and those going on pilgrimage to Mecca are considered at risk for bacterial meningitis. Other groups at risk who should receive the vaccination are college freshman living in dormitories, laboratory personnel working with the bacteria, those with a damaged or no spleen, and those with specific immune system disorders.